“To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.” ― R. Buckminster Fuller
There is no inherent notion of identities or individual accounts which “own” VCoins. Ownership simply means knowing a private key which is able to make a signature that redeems certain outputs.... No real-world name or identifying information are required.
Current at 1st September 2015.
Decentralization, provides a framework which facilitates and stimulates local sustainable development. Decentralization will reverse current practice which extracts resources from the periphery and concentrates these in inefficient hoards. Thus more resources will be retained at the local level, and will help to enhance or stimulate local economies and be available to support local development initiatives.
Decentralization represents the most effective means of curbing excessive concentration of power in a small governing group, which is a distinctive feature of the existing governance model, and which is inimical to several basic tenets of good governance, e.g. openness, transparency, fairness and probity. Conferring power to local jurisdictions to manage local affairs will make it more difficult for any single group to dominate; and will increase chances that persons of differing persuasions will occupy positions of influence somewhere in the system.
Decentralization facilitates participation in governance. It brings governance closer to the people and thus enables citizens to be better informed and to better understand the conduct of public business. This facilitates the forging of a strong relationship between the governors and the governed and identification of the people with their governance, which helps to reduce alienation from the political process.
Decentralization increases efficiency in determining service provision. In a decentralized, participatory system, citizens can influence decisions about service provision through mechanisms which enable them to indicate the type, level, quality and mix of services they desire, and the cost they are willing to pay for such services. This constitutes a type of market mechanism for determining service provision in a manner which responds to the wishes of citizens, and is sensitive to their willingness and ability to pay. This will not only optimize citizen satisfaction, but is also an excellent mechanism for reconciling citizens expectations to the resources available and/or the price which they are prepared to pay for the services desired.
Decentralization facilitates a better division of labor in the management of public affairs. The creation of strong local governance with the capacity to effectively manage local affairs improves efficiency and creates more effective checks and balances.
Decentralization, manifested in a participatory style of local governance, fosters greater social cohesion and stability, and encourages reconciliation between local interest groups and a convergence around common interests. This process of participation helps to create the conditions for collaboration and working together.
Decentralization provides the opportunity for a wider diversity of innovations, and increases flexibility of government in the context of changing circumstances. This is so because the decentralized, participatory model of governance mainstreams the many groups of citizens that were previously excluded, and creates greater scope for local and community self management. This means that the vast reservoir of talent, innovativeness, creativity, problem solving capacity and leadership qualities which have previously laid dormant in the local population is now able to find expression, and can be applied to the problems, visions and aspirations of the local community, and will also be available to contribute to community building.
Decentralization facilitates the mobilization of local resources in support of the development process, and enables value-added contributions to the provision of services and development efforts, which increases the total value of services provided, or development achieved, from the limited formal resources available. This happens because local people are able to identify and mobilize local resources which would not be available to centrally-run programs, and because citizens are often willing to volunteer free labor and expertise, and other forms of in-kind contributions, in order to support local initiatives.
Decentralization broadens the potential for societal capacity building. Weak capacity is one of the main constraints to development and good governance. The existing authoritarian, over-centralized model of governance is a major inhibitor to capacity development because it narrows the amount of people who are allowed any meaningful role in the process and so narrows the opportunity for innovation. A decentralized, participatory model of governance dramatically increases the opportunity for involvement, and provides space for persons to contribute at several different levels.
A decentralized, participatory model of local governance fosters accountability, transparency & openness, and creates pressure for the adoption of high ethical standards in the conduct of public affairs. In this model, citizens play an active role in decision-making in respect of service provision and other aspects of local governance, and therefore share information and have a good understanding of the issues and facts relating to such matters. This gives them the knowledge base to critically appraise the performance of local governance in these areas.
Decentralization allows for representatives of civil society to be appointed to carry out oversight functions on behalf of citizens, i.e. to examine transactions, enquire into use of public resources and the exercise of authority by public officials, and to report their findings to fellow citizens.
Decentralization facilitates the tailoring of solutions for local problems to local conditions. Since each locality is empowered to manage their own affairs, they will be able to tailor programmes or solutions to local problems to reflect the special circumstances or preferences of their respective regions/localities.
(Adapted from Citizens Democratic Party of Zambia)
This comparison reveals that in all 16 countries, middlewage occupations declined as a share of employment during this 13-year period. Simultaneously, low-wage occupations increased as a share of employment in 11 of 16 countries, while high-wage occupations increased in 13 of 16 counties. Notably, in all 16 countries, low-wage occupations increased in size relative to middle-wage occupations.
The comparability of these occupational shifts across a large set of developed countries—the United States among them— makes it likely that a common set of forces contributes to these shared labor-market developments. Simultaneously, the substantial differences among countries apparent in the data underscores that no single factor or common cause explains the diversity of experiences across the United States and the European Union.
... Data assembled by Barry Hirsch of Georgia State University and David MacPherson of Trinity University shows that private sector union membership among U.S. workers declined from 21.2 percent in 1979 to 7.2 percent in 2009.3
9 percentage points of the 14 percentage point decline in private sector union penetration that occurred over the past three decades took place in the 1980s. Union penetration fell only 3 percentage points in the 1990s
First, encouraging more young adults to obtain higher education would have multiple benefits. Many jobs are being created that demand college-educated workers, so this will boost incomes. Additionally, an increased supply of college graduates should eventually help to drive down the college wage premium and limit the rise in inequality.
Second, the United States should foster improvements in K-12 education so that more people will be prepared to go on to higher education. Indeed, one potential explanation for the lagging college attainment of males is that K-12 education is not adequately preparing enough men to see that as a realistic option.
Third, educators and policymakers should consider training programs to boost skill levels and earnings opportunities in historically low-skilled service jobs— and more broadly, to offer programs for supporting continual learning, retraining, and mobility for all workers.
Finally, another potential policy response is to consider R&D and infrastructure investments that will have broadly distributed benefits across the economy. Examples might include expanding job opportunities in energy, the environment, and health care. The return of the classic manufacturing job as a path to a middle-class life is unlikely. But it may be that various service jobs grow into attractive job opportunities, with the appropriate complementary investments in training, technology, and physical capital.